Distribution and morphological diversity of Astyanax rivularis

Distribution and morphological diversity of Astyanax rivularis Lütken, 1874 (Teleostei Characiformes) in the upper São Francisco River basin, Brazil

Rubens Pasa, Caroliny Helena Moreira Fernandes, Renan Rodrigues Rocha, Karine Frehner Kavalco

Astyanax S.F. Baird et Girard, 1854 (Teleostei Characiformes) is one of the most well characterized of the neotropical ichthyofauna and is composed of fish with great ability to adapt to different environmental conditions and a wide spectrum of interaction in fish assemblages due to its structure and population density. This study presents the geographical distribution and morphological diversity of Astyanax rivularis Lütken, 1874, a fish historically complex and extremely diverse, in tributary streams of the left side of upper São Francisco River.

Biodiversity Journal

2019, 10 (4): 307–314

Morphological and Genetic Structure of Two Equivalent Astyanax Species

Morphological and Genetic Structure of Two Equivalent Astyanax Species (Characiformes: Characidae) in the Region of Paranaíba Arc

Renan Rodrigues Rocha, Rosana de Mesquita Alves, Rubens Pasa, Karine Frehner Kavalco

The Astyanax scabripinnis complex is composed of a large number of almost morphological indistinguishable species, including Astyanax paranae and Astyanax rivularis, which exist in the Paraná and São Francisco Basins, respectively, and sometimes are considered subspecies of the A. scabripinnis group or even are cited just as A. scabripinnis. The two river basins are separated by the Upper Paranaíba Arc, likely the main cause of the isolation of these species. We used geometric morphometric tools and DNA analyses of populations of both species to identify the differences between them. Geometric morphometrics separated the two species into distinct groups, whose main difference was the body depth. This is generally related to the speed of the water flow in the river basins. The maximum likelihood phylogram based on mitochondrial DNA sequences formed two main clades: one composed of the population of A. rivularis and the other, of A. paranae. In the haplotype network, the species were similarly separated into two groups from the same ancestral haplotype, with A. rivularis dispersing into two lineages in the São Francisco River Basin. The distribution of A. paranae is a consequence of a secondary dispersion event in the Paraná River Basin. It forms two lineages from a haplotype derived from the ancestor. The vicariant effect of separate basins, through the elevation of the Upper Paranaíba Arc, led to the allopatric speciation of the populations originating the present species. The results of geometric morphometrics and molecular data of the fish show the importance of this geological event in the biogeography and evolutionary history of the ichthyofauna of the region and indicate that the isolation of these species seems to be effective.

The Scientific World Journal

Volume 2019, Article ID 6507954, 8 pages

Studies in two allopatric populations of Hypostomus affinis

Studies in two allopatric populations of Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877): the role of mapping the ribosomal genes to understand the chromosome evolution of the group

Karina de Oliveira BrandãoDinaíza Abadia Rocha-ReisCaroline GarciaRubens PazzaLurdes Foresti deAlmeida-ToledoKarine Frehner Kavalco

Several cytogenetic markers show chromosomal diversity in the fish such as “armoured catfish”. Although studies have characterized many species in the major genera representing these Siluridae, particularly in the genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, trends in chromosome evolution of this group remain unclear. The Paraíba do Sul river basin contains the armoured catfish Hypostomus affinis Steindachner, 1877, which is unique because of its distribution of repetitive DNAs, the 5S and 18S rDNA. Identified samples and registered collections in Brazilian museums were identified as the same typological species, while we observed wide variations in the physical location of this gene in the karyotype based on fluorescent in situ hybridization results. In this study, we propose that these species can represent evolutionarily independent units, as these fish frequently undergo processes such as dispersion and vicariance and that the rDNA is associated with DNA that spreads in the genome, such as transposons. Additionally, the absence of gene flow due to the distance of the sample location could intensify evolutionary processes. The phenotypes found for the 18S rDNA showed minor changes in relation to the number of sites between the lower and upper drainage regions of Paraíba do Sul. The large difference in the number of sites found for the 5S rDNA entered the same region (upper drainage of the basin) and the literature data could represent a population dynamics where an expansion of the 5S rDNA sites provides an extinct or non-sampled cytotype in this work.

Comparative Cytogenetics