Studies in two allopatric populations of Hypostomus affinis

Studies in two allopatric populations of Hypostomus affinis (Steindachner, 1877): the role of mapping the ribosomal genes to understand the chromosome evolution of the group

Karina de Oliveira BrandãoDinaíza Abadia Rocha-ReisCaroline GarciaRubens PazzaLurdes Foresti deAlmeida-ToledoKarine Frehner Kavalco

Several cytogenetic markers show chromosomal diversity in the fish such as “armoured catfish”. Although studies have characterized many species in the major genera representing these Siluridae, particularly in the genus Hypostomus Lacépède, 1803, trends in chromosome evolution of this group remain unclear. The Paraíba do Sul river basin contains the armoured catfish Hypostomus affinis Steindachner, 1877, which is unique because of its distribution of repetitive DNAs, the 5S and 18S rDNA. Identified samples and registered collections in Brazilian museums were identified as the same typological species, while we observed wide variations in the physical location of this gene in the karyotype based on fluorescent in situ hybridization results. In this study, we propose that these species can represent evolutionarily independent units, as these fish frequently undergo processes such as dispersion and vicariance and that the rDNA is associated with DNA that spreads in the genome, such as transposons. Additionally, the absence of gene flow due to the distance of the sample location could intensify evolutionary processes. The phenotypes found for the 18S rDNA showed minor changes in relation to the number of sites between the lower and upper drainage regions of Paraíba do Sul. The large difference in the number of sites found for the 5S rDNA entered the same region (upper drainage of the basin) and the literature data could represent a population dynamics where an expansion of the 5S rDNA sites provides an extinct or non-sampled cytotype in this work.

Comparative Cytogenetics

The Persevering Cytotaxonomy: Discovery of a Unique XX/XY Sex Chromosome System in Catfishes Suggests the Existence of a New, Endemic and Rare Species

Rocha-Reis D.A., de Oliveira Brandão K., de Almeida-Toledo L.F., Pazza R., Kavalco K.F.

The genus Hypostomus has a broad geographic distribution in Brazilian rivers and comprises armored catfishes with a very complicated taxonomy due to the absence of morphological autapomorphies. The existence of nearly 10 allopatric populations with different karyotypes suggests that Hypostomusancistroides represents a species complex in the Upper Paraná River basin. In this paper, an unusual karyotype of an isolated H. aff. ancistroides population was investigated. All specimens of this sample have 2n = 66 chromosomes except for 1 male with 2n = 67, most likely due to a supernumerary chromosome. In this population, the sexes are dimorphic, the males are heterogametic, and an XX/XY sex chromosome system is present. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear DNAs indicated that this population forms a monophyletic group separate from the other populations of H.ancistroides and may represent an incipient species.

Cytogenetic and Genome Research